The Lapland Longspur

A flurry of Lapland Longspur’s burst into the air off of a snowy road in Iroquois county this past week.

November 20, 2019 – Across the Arctic from Alaska to Greenland, in the remote places at the top of the world like Baffin Island, Southampton Island, and Melville Island in the regions of Nunavut, there is a small bird called the Lapland Longspur that spends the short breeding season courting, nesting, and raising its’ young. On the treeless tundra where packs of hunting wolves, Polar bears, and Arctic foxes eke out a living on the vast cold landscape, large migratory populations of Lapland longspurs, a small well camouflaged bird, begin arriving in the spring for the nesting season which starts by early June. These little ground nesting birds, that are about the size of a Song sparrow but with longer and more pointed wings, have a clutch of 3 to 7 eggs and only one brood. Their nests are constructed in a shallow depression lined with coarse grasses, mosses, and sedges. The nest itself is lined with finer, softer, materials from arctic plants and provides a cushioned place for the fragile eggs helping to keep them warm during the incubation period. After about 14 days, hatching begins and 10 days after that the young birds are able to leave the nest. The fledglings are equally divided and separately reared by each parent, according to the National Park Service. The time from nest to fully fledged is short in the arctic and soon the young longspurs will have developed their flight feathers and can forage on their own. As the summer comes to an end, the land of the midnight sun begins giving hints of the inevitable dark winter freeze. The Sun sinks low on the horizon as the calendar nears the Fall Equinox. By September, the longspurs are migrating south out of the dimming arctic leaving their breeding grounds for a less hostile and sunnier climate south of the Canadian boarder. By November, they are in the fallow crop fields and along rural roadways of Northern Illinois. Large flocks of these arctic birds can be seen feeding on spilled grain from the harvest. The little birds blend in quite well in the winter fields that are free of snow, but they frequently take to the air in a large flock flying and circling around only to return to the same spot. Foul weather with heavy snow brings the longspurs to the windswept or plowed edges along rural roadways where they find seeds and seek shelter from strong cold winter winds behind the tall drifts of snow. The Lapland longspurs will remain until late May fattening up for their springtime migration northward back to the breeding grounds of the high arctic.

Lapland Longspur’s in their non-breeding plumage feeding on spilled corn next to a recently harvested field.

The American Golden Plover

American Golden Plover in full breeding plumage in Iroquois county

May 16, 2019 – On their way to the high arctic for the nesting season, those grassland shorebirds, American golden plovers, have been staging in good numbers in parts of the Midwest and have been here in Northern Illinois for the past few weeks. You must look with a careful eye to see these visitors from South America as they blend in quite well in the unbroken agricultural fields in our rural areas. When these well camouflaged little birds, that are about the size of the American robin, are resting in the midday sun they lay flat on the ground in small depressions and are almost impossible to see. These swift flying, long-distance migrants winter on the Pampas of South America from central Argentina and Patagonia south to Tierra del Fuego and we get to see them while they migrate north in the spring.

A number of American Golden Plover standing in a flooded field south of Kankakee

The plovers start heading north in February, gathering in large numbers in northwestern Argentina. I was able to photograph the the leg bands of one of these birds in September of 2017 near Momence. The bird had been banded in July of 2012 on Bylot island, Nunavut Canada. The Bird Banding Biologist of the Canadian Wildlife Service have two years of telemetry for that particular plover for the years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 showing two migratory tracks. The spring migration from South America for both northbound trips where it had departed land was off the coast of Chile, south of Peru heading out over the Pacific ocean moving northwest and rounding to the south and west of the Galapagos islands.

The plovers’ path went north crossing Central America over the Gulf of Mexico and entering the United States at New Orleans. The plover followed the Mississippi river valley north, spending time in the state of Mississippi south of Memphis Tennessee. It eventually entered Illinois where it zigzagged across Illinois and Indiana as far east as Indianapolis before working its’ way to Northern Illinois. The plover was just south of Kankakee in Iroquois county where it spent a number of weeks before exiting west out of the state. When the bird finally did leave Illinois, probably in mid to late May, it headed west to the great plains of Nebraska, South Dakota then North Dakota before leaving the United States and moving north into Canada.

The plover continued north and moved out over Hudson Bay across the Hudson strait towards Baffin Island above the arctic circle where it spent the breeding season. After the nesting season, sometime in late July or early August, the plover used a more direct route south. Leaving the arctic heading south across Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia the Plover started the long crossing of the Atlantic ocean as it flew non-stop towards South America. Reaching land, the little plover entered South America on the northeast side between Guyana and French Guiana continuing on for almost 3000 miles south to Uruguay where it spent the next six or seven months.

The Lapland Longspur

December 31, 2018 – A small bird that is very difficult to see without snow cover, flocks of the Lapland longspur are in our area for the winter. The Arctic bird is easy to spot after a heavy snow. They can be seen in numbers foraging along the windswept and plowed roadways for wild seeds and spilled grain. I counted 50 in several large flocks, that I only noticed because they were flushed from the snowless landscape south of Aroma Park during the Christmas bird count this past Saturday. Keep your eyes open for these long distance migrants in and around the agricultural fields along with another visitor from the north, the beautiful little Snow bunting.


Rough-legged hawk

Rough-legged hawk

Rough-legged hawk perched on a steel cable

December 9, 2018 – Perched on a steel cable above a grassy area a Rough-legged hawk, a large raptor of the high arctic during the summer, keeps an eye out below for prey. The photo shows the feathers covering the legs, extending down to their small feet. The tip of the beak is stained red from a recent kill. The Rough-legged hawks have migrated south out the Arctic and are now on their wintering grounds. The wintering ground of the Rough-legged hawk includes most of the United States, minus the states south of the Ohio river and East of the Mississippi. According to The Cornell lab of Ornithology these wintering hawks feed mostly on voles, mice and shews while in our area of Illinois. I have personally witnessed them on the carrion of a rather large mammal a few winters back. With a wingspan of over 4′ they can’t be missed as they hover and glide over the farm fields and prairies. Watch for them perched on utility poles or on the small branches of trees or even sitting on the ground throughout the winter months.

Greater White-fronted Geese

Greater White-fronted Goose

Greater White-fronted Goose

February 4, 2018 – A cold and gusting north wind with falling snow was reducing visibility this past Sunday along the Kankakee river. Canada geese, Mallard ducks and Greater White-fronted geese also known as the Specklebelly goose were sticking close to the north bank of the river using it to block the wind. There were eight of these tundra breeders among the Canada geese and they are easy to spot with the patch of white on their forehead and at the base of their pinkish light orange bill. Although they are more common west of the Mississippi during the winter months, we still see them every year both small and large flocks in our area. Many times we hear that unique vocalization before ever seeing them flying overhead.

Greater White-fronted Geese

Greater White-fronted Geese

Snow Buntings

Snow Bunting

Snow Bunting

January 19, 2018 – Snow Buntings are a small songbird of the high Arctic, a visitor that can be seen in our area with flocks of Horned Larks and Lapland Longspurs and sometimes in larger flocks of their own species. During the winter months here in Illinois they can be found feeding on dropped seeds along roadways or in the harvested agricultural fields. An interesting fact of these little birds, unlike other birds that can claim and alternate plumage, they only molt once and that is in the late summer. By the time spring rolls around and the Arctic breeding season is underway the browns and tan colored tips of their feathers are worn off showing mostly pure white with coal black wingtips. During their breeding season there are only a few slight differences in the plumage of the female and male.

Snow Bunting

Snow Bunting

The Lapland Longspur

Lapland Longspur

Lapland Longspur Wintering in Illinois

December 27, 2017 – The Lapland Longspur is a small songbird of the Arctic tundra and a winter visitor to most of the lower 48. Feeding on natural occurring seeds and waste corn dropped during harvest, large flocks of longspurs, sometimes numbering in the thousands, can be seen fighting those strong winter winds and blowing snow while scratching out food in those areas of open ground exposed by those same winds.

Lapland Longspur

Lapland Longspur

Snowy Owls Irruption

 Snowy Owl

Snowy Owl in Southwest Iroquois county at the Ford county line.

December 4, 2017 – Experts are calling the increased number of sightings of Snowy owls this year a possible irruption as large numbers of these Arctic visitors are showing up in the lower 48. There are reports of sightings here in the Midwest about every day as they continue to spread south out of Canada. I found this beautiful Snowy owl in Iroquois county hunkered down and using the utility pole and the thick grasses around the base to block the strong 27 mph winds that were gusting out of the south Monday morning. Snowy owls move into Illinois every year from the north during the winter months but in an irruption year, about every four years, the increased presence can show that the Snowy owls had a good breeding season and research indicates it coinciding with an increase in their food supply of Arctic rodents.

December 5, 2017

Snowy Owl

Snowy Owl in Iroquois county near the Kankakee county line.