The Green Heron

An adult Green heron flies across the shallow end of a small lake landing on some vegetation where it soon began hunting in the ankle-deep waters.

July 8, 2021 – Wetlands, creeks, lakes, and rivers across Illinois provide a good summer habitat during the nesting season for the Green heron. These small herons, also known as little Green herons, are often seen perched in the trees around wetlands or silently hunting in the shallows for fish, frogs, and even small snakes. The keen eye of the skilled observer can find these well camouflaged little birds standing at the waters edge almost motionless while hunting. The Green heron, that are about the size of a crow, are often seen searching for prey along the shadowy, damp banks of a meandering creek, or hunting the still dark waters from a low branch just above a fishy habitat. They are common to lakes, ponds, and wetland habitat where their prey is available. Appearing dark in color from a distance, the Green herons are often crouched down and standing as still as a statue, any movement from the little bird is slow and precise as they intently focus on the task of watching for the slightest ripple or movement from an unsuspecting prey. It is well known and documented that Green herons are part of a small group of birds that at times use bait to attract prey. The cunning birds drop insects, small sticks, or tiny feathers on top of the water to lure fish close enough to catch them with their long dagger-like bill. Getting a good close look in the bright sunlight, the adult Green heron reveals their long bill, short bright-yellow legs, and the rich colors of a plumage that is gray, blue, chestnut, and of course, the subtle greens on the back and wings. Late winter through early spring the Green herons work their way north out of Florida and areas of the Gulf Coast for the nesting season. The herons nest from May through July where they have two to five eggs in a nest that is built on a platform of sticks. Both parents incubate the eggs and feed the young nestlings caring for the birds for a time even after they leave the nest. By late August the adults and a new generation of Green herons are making their way to the warm winter habitat of the far southern states and coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

Perched in a tree just above a creek, a Green heron with its crown plumage partially raised surveys the surroundings.

Goodbye Winter

A male Ring-necked Pheasant searches for food through a small opening in the melting snow.

March 11, 2021 – The rapid warming of our planet’s surface temperature has caused a wobbling of the jet stream over the Arctic that allowed for some very cold Arctic air to escape and move south across the United States in February bringing plenty of snow, ice, and a challenging late winter for the lower 48. The impact of the extended cold and snowy conditions on wildlife couldn’t have been more apparent as it was in Texas during the Polar Vortex event of 2021. Thousands of sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico that were stunned from the unusual cold conditions had to be rescued and cared for during the extended winter storm. Many bats were found dead or injured under bridges due to the extreme cold temperatures. Much of the wildlife has had some kind of negative impact in those areas of Texas that is not used to those extended cold temperatures. From plant life, to fish, and migratory birds, those kinds of extreme cold conditions were a challenge and even a death sentence for many, the effects from this event are still being assessed in that region. Here in Northern Illinois now that we have moved into March, the blanket of heavy snow has retreated and the iced-over waters of lakes, rivers, and wetlands have become ice free as the arctic temperatures seem to be behind us now as the jet stream has regained its strength. A few weeks ago at the end of February, as weather conditions began to show a slight improvement each day with some warming sunshine, a slow melting of the snow was going on revealing tiny bits of last falls’ dropped beans and corn. Turkey, deer, quail, and pheasants were congregating in these small open spots scratching the snow, searching for food after the long spell of deep icy snow-cover. Long periods of cold and snow becomes hard for wildlife if food remains buried and frozen under the snow for long periods. When the wildlife have only their fat reserves to rely on because they can’t get to the food, that is when things can get dangerous if the weather doesn’t improve. Here we are nearing early spring, only remnants of snow remain. Many species of waterfowl are moving through the area, some are here to nest while others are waiting for just the right time to continue north. Food is a little easier to find now and the migration will ramp up over the next few months as the cycle continues as warm weather prevails.

A male and female pheasant look for dropped beans from last years crop to rebuild their fat reserves after some challenging weeks.

Winter Larks

A Horned lark flushed from the roadside where it was searching for food landed on the undisturbed snow nearby.

February 11, 2021 – The bitter winds from an Arctic blast of snow and falling temperatures arrives in Northeastern Illinois. Temperatures drop as a result of a strong negative Arctic oscillation which indicates that some very cold air has meandered out of the Arctic and moved south across Canada and into the northern United States. The Arctic oscillation is an index of mean weather data that meteorologists and climatologists use to understand the stability of the weather over the pole. The weather data moves the Arctic oscillation index between negative and positive numbers, mild winter weather would be indicated by the latter. As the challenging cold weather takes hold, ice quickly forms on our river, and open water on ponds and creeks begins to disappear as the icy blanket is pulled tight. The muffled sounds in the winter air cause us to trust our other senses a bit more. The honking voices from a flock of Canada geese flying overhead is softened by the snowy landscape of sound absorbing crystals in the new snow. During these harsh cold conditions geese and dabbling ducks begin to look somewhat ragged and spend more time hunkered together with little movement. Diving ducks like Common goldeneye continue their hunt for crayfish in the rivers’ open waters. Along the snowplowed country roads and on the high areas of windswept agricultural fields Horned larks fight strong winds searching for small seeds in the exposed areas. At times the little birds try to walk across the icy road only to be blown by a strong cold gust causing them to skate most of the way across while using their wings to balance. Horned larks are in Illinois year- round and are considered resident to short-distance migrants. During the winter months the number of Horned larks increase as birds from further north come south to winter in Illinois. This is a good time, especially when we have snow, to locate and observe the little larks along with Lapland longspurs and Snow buntings foraging the edges of less traveled rural roads where it can be done safely. Snowplows expose grassy areas where small seeds can be found by the larks when other areas are buried under deep snow during those brutal and challenging periods of winter.

Hunting the edge of a rural road, a pair of Horned larks battle a steady wind as they search for seeds.

The American Kestrel

Hovering into the wind above an open grassy area along a creek in Iroquois County a beautiful male American Kestrel falcon searches for prey.

January 21, 2021 – A little bit smaller than the Merlin falcon and very close in size to the Mourning dove, the American Kestrel is the smallest falcon in North America. These determined little predators are focused hunters, whether perched on a utility wire, fence post, or hovering over grassy areas intently watching for any movement from small mammals, insects, and birds. Their keen vision and superb flying ability allow for a stealthy and swift attack from above on their unsuspecting prey. The drama of predator and prey plays out hour after hour, day after day above the grassy areas along the rural roads, ditches, and busy highway medians here in Northeastern Illinois and across the United States. Because of their small size the falcons go mostly unnoticed by humans speeding past the little perched hunters. It doesn’t take much effort to be just a bit more observant to a moment in nature, it will quickly become almost impossible to not see these little predators perched and hunting. Soon the sightings of Kestrels add up and the mind expands beyond the mundane for the human observer as that moment in nature is understood. Also known as the Sparrow hawk, the Kestrel is certainly the best known and most colorful and boldly marked falcon in North America. The male Kestrel has slate blue-gray colored wings while the females have reddish-brown wings,a heavily streaked chest and they are also up to 15% larger than the male. The bold and vibrant colors of the male Kestrel are quite intense under bright sunlight. The females, while they still have beautiful colors, are less vibrant than the males. The Kestrel lives year around in Illinois and nest in natural occurring places like rock crevices and overhangs, they also take advantage of abandoned woodpecker holes, man-made nest-boxes, old buildings and structures near a good hunting area. They most often have only a single brood. Incubation of four or five eggs last about 30 days, the female will brood for about nine days after the last egg has hatched and then only at night or during harsh weather conditions. The American Kestrel falcons are widespread in the Western Hemisphere and occur from Alaska and Canada to Tierra del Fuego in South America.

A female Kestrel falcon perched and hunting on a utility wire along a rural road.

Sandhill Cranes

Walking together at the edge of a grassy field some adult and juvenile Sandhill cranes move to join a larger flock at the edge of a wooded area.

November 12, 2020 – It’s that time of year when those amazing bugling and rattling sounds from thousands of Sandhill cranes echo across the countryside of Northern Indiana at the Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area just north of Medaryville, a little over an hour east of Kankakee. Jasper-Pulaski FWA is a great place to witness the fall migration of the Sandhill cranes where they can easily and safely be viewed from the parking lot at the Goose Pasture viewing area or from the nearby viewing platform. As more cranes arrive and numbers continue to grow, so do visitors who want to experience that autumnal spectacle of nature that can quite easily overwhelm the senses with the sights and sounds that have occurred each fall across the great Midwestern prairies for thousands of years. Mid-November is considered the peak time for highest numbers of cranes, with a record number topping 30,000. By mid-December, many will have moved further south, but it’s no secret that there is a healthy winter population of cranes that remain in the general area. Even during the harshest of winters, cranes can be found in the bean and corn stubble foraging. Currently during the fall after leaving the roosting areas for the day, the cranes can be found feeding, socializing, and resting in the harvested agricultural fields and on the grassy areas along the big drainage ditches. Sunrise and sunset are great times to experience large flocks leaving the roosting marshes in the morning and gathering at the Goose Pasture, or again after a day of feeding in the agricultural fields, returning about an hour before sunset in large numbers. There is nothing more surreal than viewing Sandhill cranes in large numbers as far as the eye can see, stretching out across a rolling landscape and looking more like herds of ice-age animals than flocks of birds. It is truly an amazing sight.

Lying down in the soft grass on a sunny morning some Sandhill cranes look to be enjoying the mild November weather.

White-throated Sparrow

Perched in the morning sunlight the bold beautiful markings on the face and throat of the White-throated sparrow standout.

November 5, 2020 – Back in Illinois for the winter months are the White-throated sparrows, a large and attractive bird with a long tail and a bright-white throat and bold face patterns of black, white, gray, and yellow. The White-throated sparrows are considered a short to medium-distance migrant. It breeds in the United States in the Upper Great Lake region and in the coniferous and mixed forests across most of Canada. There are small pockets of year around birds in the northeast U.S. The sparrows leave the impending harsh winter of the north in autumn before the first snow and head south into the United States to a more hospitable climate that is not totally locked in ice during those cold months. They appear in northeastern Illinois about the same time in the fall each year as many other sparrows, like the White-crowned, Lincoln’s, and Swamp sparrows. Similar to the Fox sparrow, the White-throated sparrows forage on the ground under the thick gnarly cover of the shadowed understory kicking leaf litter with its feet searching for insects, seeds and fruit in a very focused but alert manner. The sparrow can be found near heavily vegetated areas around parks and near rivers and creeks where there is plenty of cover. Also, during prolonged snow cover, many birds, including the White-throated sparrow, can be found in the windswept areas along roads and in fields searching for seeds. The White-throated sparrows will show up at backyard feeders during the winter here in Illinois with other birds providing there is some good cover nearby. Backyard feeders are favorite haunts for predators like Cooper’s hawk, domestic and feral cats, so quick escapes into thickets, bushes, and trees are a necessary part of a safe habitat for feeding birds.

Landing on a branch for only a moment the White-throated sparrow drops down into the dark understory to search for food.

The Tufted Titmouse

Paused for only a moment, a Tufted titmouse quickly leaves its’ perch and disappears as it continues its’ search for a nice large seed.

October 29, 2020 – It is late October and the unmistakable and lovely echoing song of the Tufted titmouse, a small gray songbird with large black eyes, is in the air. Four of the fine-looking little birds descend to the ground to search through the leaf litter for fallen seeds. After finding a large seed, the titmouse quickly flies up to a branch and holds the seed between its’ feet and hammers away on the food with its’ bill to break the seed into smaller, edible pieces The Tufted titmouse is a common year-round resident to the eastern forests of the United States, most often seen during the fall and winter months at backyard feeders, parks, and open brushy areas at the edges of wooded landscapes where fruits, seeds, and insects are available. Northern Illinois, and states east to the Atlantic, are at the northern edge of the little birds’ range, although surveys have shown that they have been expanding their range northward as far as southern Canada for sometime, possibly due to a warming climate and the fact that more people are feeding birds during the winter. With a gray crest, dark forehead, a stubby black bill, and rusty colored flanks with white underparts the little Tufted titmouse stands out against the dull shades of brown on the autumn landscape, much like its’ smaller cousin, the Chickadee, with its’ bright crisp colors. It’s a speedy little bird that can suddenly appear, sometimes in a banditry of three or four bold little titmice, where there is a good food source. Cautiously but quickly the titmouse hops from branch to branch and then to the ground, many times chasing other birds away, finding a large seed to either eat now or take away and cache for later. The Tufted titmouse is a joy to see and a treat to hear, somehow their beauty is enhanced when snow comes to the woods. Maybe it’s the soft illumination from the blanket of white under the stark winter sky or just bottled up nostalgia that seems ready to burst with each new encounter.

With a seed clutched between its’ feet, a Tufted titmouse is ready to hammer away breaking the seed into small bits.

Winter Is Coming

Young White-tailed bucks spar on a grassy hill as the deer breeding season nears.

October 22, 2020 – The cool temperatures of the Midwestern autumn bring a patchwork of awe-inspiring colors to both rural and urban landscapes. Reflections of the changing season fill the rivers, lakes, and slow flowing creeks that meander across the weary prairies and through the used-up pastures with a wonderful palette enhanced by the defused light of the gray autumn sky. The greens of the summer foliage are slowly disappearing into a changing landscape of late October. Large flocks of Turkey vultures, sometimes 40 or more, can be seen gliding in the breezy sky slowly working their way south for the winter. Some of the vultures are high in the sky with wings swept as they cut through the strong winds, others are gliding low across the tree tops and fields making progress working to windward across a gentle rolling sea of color. Winter flocks of black birds flying in unison take to the air from a fencerow as a Cooper’s hawk moves towards the mesmerizing display for a short pursuit that ends quickly as the hawk gives up on the evasive murmuration. Numbers of Pine siskins are seen in large and small flocks in the same areas where Gold finches in their drab winter plumage are feeding. The Pine siskin is a bird of the north that feeds on the seeds of coniferous and deciduous trees, though some years they move south in greater numbers if the seed crop of the north is poor. While fattening up on the available food the thick furred Fox squirrels are busy building their caches for the coming months. Young White-tailed bucks still in their bachelor group spar with each other on the sunny side of a sandy rise. As the rut grows near, these bucks will grow less tolerant of each other and the sparring will become much more serious, the group will break up and the bucks will go off on their own. Soon breeding will be the only thing on their mind as they search far and wide for does. A cold clear starry night accompanied by a freeze warning to gardeners and farmers tell the tale of no return, winter is coming, and that swift moving stream of the cold north winds will bring ice and blowing snow in the coming weeks. The frigged deep freeze of winter that is brought to use by the dynamics of a tilting planet will soon be at the door.

A large flock of Pine siskins fly to some standing water in a creek bed for a quick drink.

The Swamp sparrow

A beautiful Swamp sparrow stands tall on a dry weed stem in Iroquois County during the fall migration.

October 15, 2020 – The Swamp sparrow is an elegant, long-legged, medium-sized sparrow that is well adapted and right at home in the thick cover of marshes, swamps, and bogs of the north across eastern and central North America, stretching up into Canada’s Northwest Territories during the nesting season. The Swamp sparrow is more often detected by its song rather than actually being seen in its’ dense summer habitat of sedges, cattails, and shrubs. The variations of songs and calls of the Swamp sparrow have been studied, admired, and described as a slow, sweet, trill that will evoke the vision of a northern wetland to the observer just as the call of the Common loon sends ones’ thoughts to a clear secluded lake in the north woods. Ornithologists have even discovered regional dialects for Swamp sparrows located in different parts of the country. Through the study of the Swamp sparrow’s songs and calls researchers have gained an understanding on how these birds learn and continue to use songs that vary across different geographical regions, and how the sparrows are influenced as young by the popular songs used by the adults of those regions. It seems the most popular songs are the ones that are learned and repeated by the new generation of sparrows and any new variation that a young bird may come up with in its’ song learning practice that is not useful will soon fade away over time. The study also shows those popular songs have persisted in those regions for generations, possibly hundreds of years. The term used to explain how these song types are learned and stay popular to a region is known as “conformist bias”. The sparrows have a song repertoire, depending on the region, of popular tunes that have stood the test of time over many generations, influenced by the adults and put in to practice each year by a new generation of Swamp sparrows. Those tunes that work ring-out across the varied wetlands of North America.

Wonderful colors of reddish brown, blacks, and gray plumage adorn the long-legged Swamp sparrow as it pauses for a moment in its search for insects.

The Magnolia Warbler

A Magnolia warbler stops for just a moment as it forages through the bushes looking for insects.

October 1, 2020 – The Magnolia warbler is a small songbird that nests across the provinces of Canada, from British Colombia, to Nova Scotia, and the Upper Great Lakes, to the northeastern US. The warblers have striking colors even after the breeding season, when many birds lose their bold colorful plumage and become rather dull. During the fall migration these little warblers bring some bright yellows to the early autumn Midwestern woods. These long-distance Neotropical migrants are on their way south stopping for a few days in a small woods in Iroquois County. Suddenly appearing out of the thicket, the Magnolia warblers forage for insects through the leafy bushes at the sunny edge of the small wooded area no larger then an acre. These small patches of land that have for some reason avoided the plow are life savers for migrating birds, insects, and bats. Whether seasonal migrants, or wildlife that is here year around, these small untouched habitats that are few and far between, and barely surviving among the cultivated lands of Illinois are pieces of land that are of the utmost importance to many species. The loss of habitat at wintering and nesting sites as well as the food and resting areas along the migratory routes can have a devastating impact on many species of birds. The Magnolia warblers travel from Panama and Mexico to the far northern US and up into Canada and back again in the fall. These migratory trips can be as much as 4000 miles one way. It is a hard trip for the little fliers and those exhausted birds that can’t find places to rest and feed don’t make it. Awareness and conservation are key to help prevent many species of birds from being listed as rare, or worse, cannot be found. Shade coffee farms that are replacing the sun coffee farms have provided good habitat for the warblers, Hummingbirds, and other species, and supporting shade grown coffee goes a long way in helping provide a winter habitat for these migrants. River valleys, lakes, and the islands of uncut forests across Illinois are the refueling stations for these tired night travelers that still have many miles to go during another exhausting and challenging migration.

A lovely display from a beautiful warbler as it perches on a dried stem in the morning sun.